Building with Mud and Sand

How do you create a sufficiently stable subsurface from mud as efficiently as possible, and how do you achieve the best possible natural values on this subsurface?

In this theme, we investigated how the composition of the mud and the way it is applied affect consolidation and development of load-bearing capacity. How do you establish most natural value?

The Marker Wadden islands consist of two types of mud: thin mud and Holocene clay. The thin mud comes from the bed of the Markermeer lake. The Holocene clay is a stronger material from the same source. It was used for the construction of the first islands. In the future, the thin mud will be used for the maintenance and further development of the Marker Wadden archipelago. The research therefore focused primarily on knowledge development about building with this thin mud.

Research topics

The researchers looked at the following parts of Marker Wadden:

  • The mud channel and sheltered side: siltation rate
  • The mud compartments: strength and height development, the impact of vegetation on that development
  • The sandy edges: stability and exchange between the Markermeer lake and Marker Wadden

Contacts (theme leaders)

Marcel Klinge (Witteveen+Bos), Thijs van Kessel (Deltares)


Valesca Harezlak (University of Twente), Koen Princen (Witteveen+Bos), Henk Steetzel (Arcadis)